Medicare is the federal health insurance program for people who are 65 or older, certain younger people with disabilities, and people with End-Stage Renal Disease. There are certain services that Medicare covers, and certain services Medicare doesn't cover.
It's extremely important to know what Medicare covers as one nears retirement age. Medicare is broken down into categories; Part A, Part B, Part C, and Part D. Here's what each mean (from Medicare.gov):
What Medicare Covers
Medicare Part A (Hospital Insurance)
Part A covers inpatient hospital stays, short term care in a skilled nursing facility, hospice care, and some home health care.
Medicare Part B (Optional Medical Insurance)
Part B covers certain doctors' services, outpatient care, medical supplies, and preventive services.
Medicare Part C (Optional Medicare Advantage Plans)
A type of Medicare health plan offered by a private company that contracts with Medicare to provide you with all your Part A and Part B benefits. Medicare Advantage Plans include Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO's), Preferred Provider Organizations (PPO's), Private Fee-for-Service Plans, Special Needs Plans, and Medicare Medical Savings Account Plans. If you’re enrolled in a Medicare Advantage Plan, most Medicare services are covered through the plan and aren’t paid for under Original Medicare. Most Medicare Advantage Plans offer prescription drug coverage.
Understanding Medicare Coverage
Medicare Part D (Optional Prescription drug coverage)
Part D adds prescription drug coverage to Original Medicare, some Medicare Cost Plans, some Medicare Private-Fee-for-Service Plans, and Medicare Medical Savings Account Plans. These plans are offered by insurance companies and other private companies approved by Medicare. Medicare Advantage Plans may also offer prescription drug coverage that follows the same rules as Medicare Prescription Drug Plans.
What Medicare Doesn't Cover
Jim T. Miller, syndicated columnist, for NBC Today (and creator of SavvySenior.org) wrote up a nice list on HuffPost titled “What Medicare Doesn't Cover“. We like this list because it's simple, to the point and provides a resource where you can find out if your particular healthcare service is covered by Medicare (or not). Among the items Jim discusses are routine dental, vision and hearing care. At a time when each of these functional areas are failing us, we're forced to find solutions on our own.
Jim also offers advice on carrying supplemental insurance to plug the gaps in coverage:
Also keep in mind that even if Medicare covers a service or item, they don’t usually pay 100 percent of the cost. Unless you have supplemental insurance, you’ll have to pay monthly premiums as well as annual deductibles and copayments. Most preventive services, however, are covered by original Medicare with no copays or deductibles. – Jim Miller, HuffPost, 1/21/15
Medicare Doesn't Cover These 8 Services
You can also find a similar list of items Medicare doesn't cover over at Medicare.gov. Their list is titled, “What's not covered by Part A & Part B“. Here's a list of the 8 health care services Medicare does not routinely cover:
- Long-term care (also called custodial care)
- Most dental care
- Eye examinations related to prescribing glasses
- Cosmetic surgery
- Hearing aids and exams for fitting them
- Routine foot care
So, while Medicare provides coverage for many services, you are on your own for anything above the neck. If you anticipate having any of these routine services (most of us will), be prepared to pay out of pocket or plan on purchasing a separate policy if it could save you money.